Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the second largest city on the East Coast of the United States, and the fifth-most-populous city in the United States. It is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, and it is the only consolidated city-county in Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 1,526,006, growing to 1,547,607 in 2012 by Census estimates. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural center of the Delaware Valley, home to over 6 million people and the country’s sixth-largest metropolitan area. Within the Delaware Valley, the Philadelphia metropolitan division consists of five counties in Pennsylvania and has a population of 4,008,994. Popular nicknames for Philadelphia are Philly and The City of Brotherly Love, the latter of which comes from the literal meaning of the city’s name in Greek (Greek: Φιλαδέλφεια ([pʰilaˈdelpʰeːa], Modern Greek: [filaˈðelfia]) “brotherly love”, compounded from philos (φίλος) “loving”, and adelphos (ἀδελφός) “brother”).In 1682, William Penn founded the city to serve as capital of Pennsylvania Colony. By the 1750s, Philadelphia had surpassed Boston to become the largest city and busiest port in British America, and second in the British Empire, behind London. During the American Revolution, Philadelphia played an instrumental role as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the Constitution in 1787. Philadelphia was one of the nation’s capitals during the Revolutionary War, and the city served as the temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C., was under construction. During the 19th century, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and railroad hub that grew from an influx of European immigrants. It became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration and surpassed two million occupants by 1950.The city is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania, and is home to the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and several Fortune 500 companies.Philadelphia is known for its arts and culture. The cheesesteak and soft pretzel are emblematic of Philadelphia cuisine, which is shaped by the city’s ethnic mix. The city has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city, and Philadelphia’s Fairmount Park is the largest landscaped urban park in the world. Gentrification of Philadelphia’s neighborhoods continues into the 21st century and the city has reversed its decades-long trend of population loss.
Some aspects of crime in Philadelphia have achieved national and even international attention. Charles Ramsey, the police commissioner, has stated his goal to reduce the number of homicides by 100 per year.The legal entities responsible for maintaining law and order are:The Philadelphia Police Department is the police department. The Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia County (1st Judicial Circuit) is the state trial court. The Philadelphia District Attorney is the district attorney. The Defender Association of Philadelphia is the government-funded independent public defender office.